The copyright law of the United States (Title 17, United States Code)
governs the making of photocopies or other reproductions of copyrighted
materials Including foreign works under certain conditions. In addition,
the United States extends protection to foreign works by means of
various International conventions, bilateral agreements, and
Under certain conditions specified in the law, libraries and archives are
authorized to furnish a photocopy or other reproduction. One of these
specified conditions is that the photocopy or reproduction Is not to be
"used for any purpose other than private study, scholarship, or research."
If a user makes a request for, or later uses, a photocopy or reproduction
for purposes In excess of "fair use," that user may be liable for copyright
The Columbia University Libraries reserve the right to refuse to accept a
copying order If, In Its judgement, fulfillment of the order would involve
violation of the copyright law.
Foley, Edward A.
The almond industry in
Italy and Spain
MASTER NEGATIVE «
COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES
BIBLIOGRAPHIC MICROFORM TARGET
ORIGINAL MATERIAL AS FILMED - EXISTING BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD
Foley, Edward A
•.. The almond industry in Italy and Spain, by ,
Edw, A, Foley, agricultural commiasioner, U, S,
Department of agriculture, London, England ».»
2, 58 p. 27C", (U. S, Bureau of agricultural
economics. Report F. S, 22)
At head of title: United Stated Department of
agriculture. Bureau of agricultural economics.
Report F. S. 22, November 1, 1922,
"Edited in the Foreign section,"
J&ilti graphed, ^^
RESTRICTIONS ON USE:
TECHNICAL MICROFORM DATA
RLM SIZE: ^mrf\
IMAGE PLACEMENT: lA
DATE FILMED: l\-30~^^
TRACKING # :
FILMED BY PRESERVATION RESOURCES, BETHLEHEM, PA.
^ o o
. _ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz
2.5 mm 1234567890
> C CO
I TJ ^
n I " '
/jIa^u^V^^^^ vV^^t^ e.i^
School of Business
ITiTITSE STATES lEPASTlviEATrr OF ACffilCULTUEE
Bureau of Agricultural Econoiuics
Report F. S. 22.
November i, 1^22,
TEE imOiTO IOT3USTRY IN ITilLY AND SP..IN
Edw. A. Foley
Agr i cul l-ur::.,! Com., i s s i oner
U, S. Deparoment of Agriculture
» .. ' * . -
• * « « I *
Editea in tne Forsigti Section
1} 3'0 6
The AlEQond Indiistry in Italy 2
Bo,ri AliLond Section 3
Bari Almonds Best in Italy 4
Grading and Shelling of Bciri Ali^onds , . .' 5
Deraands of American and Britis]i Trade ,,........, 6
Old Export Classification ." 7
Old Trading Regul6.tions . . . .... ,'. . .'. . ...... 8
New Trading Regulations '. . .■.".' ." . .' . . . 10
Ne^- Export Classification . . . . ; .'. 10
Education Naeded for Developing Grades .......... 12
Price CVuoting to- be Systeaoatized .. ..... , 13
Coiircetitive Effects of Living Standards ', 16
Almond Indiastry in Sicily 17
Sicilian Alujond Grades .;;..'............. '. , 18
Metaods of Production Hapnazard '. " 20
Distribution of Sicilii*n Almond Crop . . . . .' 21
Italien Alciond Production Statistics 22
Vegetation Fnasas in Italian Almonds 23
Notes from the American Consul at N^les 24
South Itadian Nut Crops * 2^
Exports from Naples, First Half of 1&22 24
Prices and Crop Forecasts 25
Current Market Quotations 25
Choice Grades Bring Hi^ Prices 25
^-Products P^ for Shelling 26
Annua Production in Southern Italy [... 26
The Almond Industiy in Spain 27
-llE-onds Cash Crop of L5c.joroa .'!!!.*.'!.*.* 27
illlcrcfji Growers Seek U. S. ii;-rkcts 27
Balearic *Uiii:?nds C' lapoto wit^ Italian 28
Balearic Selling Methods 30
Paper Shelled Alonds Specialty of Iviza 30
Three Chief Almond Districts of Spadn ! 31
Grading in Tarragona District 32
M?4:k3ting of Tarragona Almonds 33
Distribution in Caitr^l Spain .,, 34
Grading in Central Spain 35
Marketing Methods in Centra.1 Spain 36
Best Ali:?onds in S:uthem Spain 37
Gr^^ing and Marketing in Southern Spain 33
Price SC'Tvle of Jorden cjid M.^lei^ Grades . . . .' 40
History of Almond Growing in Southern Spain ...!! 40
Production of Almonds in Spain 42
Characteristics in Italicja and Spc-jiish illmond
Industxy ^ ^
Trade and Crop Statistics:
.Alu-ond Product ion. in. Italy ... :. as
iimual Production in Soutliem It&ly •..-....,. ' 26
AlEond Production in SpAin- ....• " " /i?
■ Spanish CooLerciai Estiii:*tea /. 43 ■
•ibEportS IVom Spain , » * " "43^
Aceuracy of Traide St^^tistics 11 III ]['.'.['.[[ ,] . 48- '
Crop Prospects in Bari. District.... 48 .
Sjianish Pr^jsjects Bncouraging* ..'. , . ,..»..•. .* . .. --^ .
liondon iUiMnd Prices . , .■... i. .1 !",!]!* ^ -so •'
inports of Ifcit6d Kinirdoi^ *.* .\^\. ..7. ....[. . 52.
Sbcpcrts of IJiited Kincdom . '« . . ,.. " 52
Isqports of ttoited States ... = ...'.! ,[ 1. 1['^2[ . 53
Injorts of France hk,-'. ...... i'-. .55
Exports of France '. . . ...,*.. i ..!!'!!! ^ . *.. . .', 56
THE mfiOm IMJTJSTRT OF IT/LY /M) SPAIN,
The growing of almonds in the countries of the Mediterranean
Basin dates hack to pre-historic times. They are grown in all of the
Mediterranean countries as far north as latitude U5 , hut chiefly along
the eswt coast of Italy in and about Foggia and Bari, along the east
and south coast of iSpain and frcm Barcelona to Malaga, and T>artiealarly
in the Islands" of Sicily, Majorca and Ivi3a.
It will he noted that the statistics in this report for hoth
Italy and Spain are given as shelled and unshelled almonds. Unshelled
almonds are often of the soft shelled variety such as the paper shelled
varieties of the Island of Iviza, the smallest and westernmost of the
three principal Balearic Islands, helcnging to Spain, in the Msditerran-
ean, a little more than I30 miles southwest of Barcelona. These almonds
grow only Tjnder the most favorable conditions such as are found in that
Island, in Trance, and in a few other places on the mainland. The
shelled almonds are usually hleached and sold in the grocery and similar
trade. This fehelling is done in sorro places hy speculators who buy un-
. ..... ■ r ■•>. . . .:."■■•
shelled almonds and s^oell, and in some cases also grade the almonds.
In other places, especially in Majorca, the largest of the Balearic
Islcnds, and sisuthsm Spain, the almonds are shelled hy the peasants
during their leisure moments.
• 2 -
THE MMCm) INDUSTRY IN ITALY .
The most iroportant 'i«urc8 of almond supply in Italy Is to te
found along the central and -siduth eastern coast line in the vicinity of
Bari. The Barl supply "on the southeast coast of Italy canes from one
of the most baclwrard sections of that country. -It is important to note
that this section of Italy, wh^re illiteracy is still most prevalent,
was particularly oppreased durir^ the reign of the Bourhon icings, and
it has only been in recent tirr.es that much progress has been made. At
the present tins and under the present King of Italy, a very complete
study of almond growing is being' made both in and about Bari and in
Sicily. It is as yet too early to expect any definite results fran
these labors in the increasiad production of that section-
■The cultivation of almonds in Italy has been gradually in-
creasing year by year so'thafnov it is second in importance only to
the cifltivation of citrus fruit. In the Bari -and- Sicily districts it
exceeds 'citrus growing in importance. The total annual production of
shelled almoids in Italy at "the* present 'time is about 99,207,000 pounds*
The compilation of agricultural statistics in Italy during recent years
has beer disorgaitized on accotmt of ths war. Ace ceding 'to the bulletin
of the Periodical Nfews of the Office of Agricultural Statistics :of
Italy, however, the production in the shell for the years I915, I916 and
1920 amounted to lUo,2l2,56C pounds, 2Ug,U53,U20 pounds and 303,352,960
pounds, respectively. The export figures of the Italian GovemnBnt for
the ten year avera^, prior to I916, indicate that the horae consumption
of almonds in Italy was 505^ cf the national production.
T 3 r
! pE BARI pmcm) sscTioy .
0r» of the most important almond growing sections of Italy is
that which lies bad: of tl-^ port of Bari. -Tl^ Bari almond region is a
low-lying district along the southeastern coast line .and runs up along
the mountain side a few miles back from the Adriatic. The soil is of
rocky lircs stone and is ^rell adapted to almond cultivation. The climate,
while gens rally uniform, is subject diiring certain years to severe
chancres due to frosts, which fact very materially lovi^ers the output of
c-la-onds in that region. Tl?is is evident from a study of the production
figures of the Bari district from the years I907 to I9I7. Sccb year*
the production is given as 15o, 731,200 pounds, while other years it is
as low as 11,90^,3^0 rounds in the shell. Thi area devoted to alronds
in the Bari section of Italy from 1903 to I916, according to the Bari
Departrent of Agrici:lture, was as follovs:
The acreage in almonds is very difficult to ascertain in this
district as many of the almond orchards are mixed with olives and the
trees are by no means uniform in their position. For that reason there
is very little to be gained by an accurate knovledge of the actual area.
In the old orchards the trees seem to be planted almost at random. In
the nevTsr orchards,' havever, an attempt is being made to keep the trees
^ 4 •
at a Tmif orm distance where tte ground is leirel, "but irery little of
the ground "unfortimately is level. The entire district has to he
terraced in order to prevent the land froro being washed away. This is
partioalariy tme of the mountainous district where sutaining walls 30
to ko feet long and 3 to 5 foet high are btiilt with stone to maintain h
and 3 trees*.
BiStBl /BfOWDS CONSIIfEPED BEST IN ITALY >
CoDm»reially the Italians consider that Bari has easily the*
best almonds in Italy* The ccsoraercial output in a good year is generally
• ■ • - .
^jestimated at from 55,115, OCX) poamds to 66,133,000 poiands of stelled
• . »-•
almcpds. These almonds are both bitter and sweet* In prewar days the
'* " ' ■ - • ■• • ....
• • ••
.entire output of the Barl district was in German hands and was exported
directly to Germany aid the Central European countries - little or no
attention being paid to grading. These markets are now closed so that
the Bari merchants have directed their attention towards the markets
in the United States.
Th3 Bari marls t is perhaps the most disorganized of the Euro-
pean almond marlssts. In prewar days: the total .output of that section
lient directly to Germany, both the bitter almonds for industrial pur-
poses and the sAeet almonds for cosnercial purposes. The great call-
from Genrany was for cheap almonds. Sines there was no grading, every-
■' • ■ . . . • ■ ■ ■ . . .
thing was shipped, good, bad and indifferent. It is said that the
product was loaded up with as much shell and iHoisture as the traffic
.would bear. ^Ihen the war put an end to shippinar, the Bari almonds were
transported overland and sold through Naples and other Italian ports.
With the re-opening of trade, howQVar, tho laerchants hc.d to reorganise
their methods of doing business. This process of roorg£-nization is
still taking place,
GILII'ING i:^ SHELLING O F B.LHI ALMONDS.
Tnere is groat dumand for high class almonds in bcih the
Ifcited States and in the Uni.t«3d Kingdom. The almond growers of the
Bari district intend to njake evsry effort to develop t market for their
product in those countries. The outstanding difficulty at tlis ^resent
time, however, is the fact that tne Bari shippers are entirely un-
accustomed to the high-class trade such as is being carried on by the
American and British delaers \7ith the Spanish alcond growers. Tne
Bari trade is accustoiied to only one gra-de, "Preixder Bari," which calls
for » good average quality of the seasons and is sub-divided according
to welg.it into three classes - he&vy, medium and light.
• Tais grading is carelessly performed by women who know little
of the work they are handling. The shelling and grading is performed by
hand, wid the women who do the work rec3ive 5 lira (at par 96 cts) per day.
These women are not very energetic, triou^ mich cannot be expected con-
siderirg their mental capacity, exjierience cjnd '^pa^. A really energetic
worker can shell 165 pounds or mors per day, but the general average is
considerably belo^ that figure. AliLonds lose ahout two-thirds or three-
quarters of the weignt in the shelling process.
The following table shows wsiglits of shell end kemal by
Varieties in tne Bari district.
. 6 ^
litigh t shell and fcsmel rev b iishel rjeasure,
: ] ""
^^®^^* : Ifemel. * ', Shell & Kernel
Mollosa e Nocella
11. OQ .
Mm?.ICM7 JND_B1I? ISH DE?^J1^I!) KirrFl??;T' GP^DE NUT .
nth the coning of t::9 1:15:1 class trade of the United States
and of the United Kingdom care a demand for a high grade product which
could coapete successfully .vith tl» Sicilian and Spanish almond. Con-
. siderahla difficulty Ijas been experienced in the develppirBnt of this
tmr trade as the Bari peorle are Jiist commencing to grade. In spite
of the fact that jiresent Mthods under the leadership of tbe Bari Chaio-
ber of Coim»rce are very ynicb disorganized, sane progress is being made
Regulations for tte control of the almond trade of the Bari
district were first fonrnilatad by the Chai^ber of ComnBrce and Industry
of that Province at a meeting held on July 21;, 1912, although rules for
the classification of almonds entsring into the export trade of Bari
itere established as early as September 21;. 1909. These regulations and
rules, ho.«x9ver, have nav been changed. The change vvas brought about by
the Bari Chamber of Conxrerce which sasr the necessity for the eetablish-
Bcent of a better code of mercantile- practice in the grading and market-
ing of €Llmonds.i-' * . - ....:•..
The following are the old and the new official gradings of
the Bari Chamber- of. ComDcerce, together with the ©id and new arbitrary '
rules of that organization: :•■
• V • •: OLD EXPORT CLASSIFICATION .
!♦ Selected sa'eet almonds of Bari : hot to "be aistaken for hand
selected-- this means a type of almonHs of the normal size for the
year's crop, produced in the region of Apulia and its surroundir^s,
(not including the regions that are notorious for producing small
almonds, such as Fasans, etc»; the bulk of the almonds must not contain
more than 10^^ of these sorts) containing from 1/2 to 1^ of foreign
matters, and not more, between rind and waste ; and between l/2 and 1^,
and not mors .of .natural moisture, due to recent breaking or to young
fruit piclsed too soon. . : . . • . .
2. C\3rrent. sweet almorlds : this means a type' of fruit of the nor*
mal size for the year's crop produced in the regi<3n of Apulia and its
surroundings, containing a larger percentage of small fruit, - i, e.,
up to yp of brohen fruit and wsiste when arriving at the market and up
to 6^ in fruit sent abroad; this takes into consideration the knocking
about in the warehouses of the dealers and enroutej it may contain up
to 25^ of ^all fruit produced in the district of Fasano or otter
similar districts, or of small fruit remaining over from hand selected
products. This oarrent type of almonds must not contain over 3^ of
foreign matters, bet^veen rind.. (up. to l-l/2f^) and moisture (up to l.l/2^)
at the most.
... « . •
Any. parcel of current sweet almonds of Bari. which shall con-
tain a larger proportion of foreign matters than that indicated above
shall be hie Id to be adialte rated. Hence the injured party shall have,
the right to take legal action agaiiist the vendor or consignor accord-
ing to the civil laws against cannBrcial fraud.
3. All sjveet almonds s'old'unker the nare of the district, of originj
such as: Bi'sceglie', Molfetta, Gioyinaz^o, Andria, Modugno, etc., mus.t
represent the good average type of the years crop of local growth, and
must contain a regular peroeritege of large fruit according to the dis-
trict, from 15 to 30^, which must not have .been previously impoverished
by selecting by hand; .this operation is s-trictly forbidden. The said
almonds must' be well dried, they must not contain more than lA^ of
rind, waste, etc*
.- ' ii
— ' B ^
4. Bitter almonds must not contain more than 5^ of sweet fruit
and must te grovm in the districts, of Apulia and its sTorro-undings ;
they must he delivered well dried, no moisture except what is ahsolute-
ly natural being allowed; the maximum of \l4$ of rind and waste must
not he exceeded.
5. In estimating moisture, samples of 5 kgs. (11 pounds) are
taken from the hulk of. the fruit, .either from one or from several dacks
taken hap-hazard from the hulk; the wei^t of the said sanple is register-
ed; the sample almonds are then allowed to dry fro a month in a dry, well
serated place, witnout exposing the fruit directly to the reys of the stui,
6. When the Chamber shall be. asked for expert decisions in cases
of comnsercial disputes, or for other reasons, it shall adhere to the
above rules and judge the samples by the. above standard, as becomes
traders and brokers expert in the uAtter and endowed with a proper feed-
ing of duty and justice.
Approved ^ the Chamber of ^omsuerce and Industries of the
Province of Bari, at the sitting of Sept. 24, 1909..
AV De TuXlio
OH) BEGOUTIONS . •
Board of Experts for expert estimates and arbitral &Wfe.rd8 in
the almond trade. ,
', . • . . . ■ .
" ■ * •
Art. 1. Ihe Chamber of Coaiueree iuid Industries of the Province
of Bari has set 19 a Board of Experts, coiqposed of one Counoilior of
the Chamber, one dealer in the goods of that market and one licensed
broker in goods, to be elected by the Chiaaber. The Councillor of the
C|Micber acts as President; the Board remains in office two years, sub-
j.ect to re-election. The Sectetaiy of the Chamber of Coniuerce acts
Art. 2. The Board shall deliver its conclusions in the form of
eertificatiss signed by its President to the Chancellor, In order to
Insure the better working of this Institution, tha Chamber shall pro-
vide for the ncodnation of two Councillors, two dealers &nd two bro-
kers who shall work in t-om, one replacing the other in time of need.
If there be aiiy extraordinary demand for sample taking, the President
wifl be empowered to avail himself of the services of the whole Board
at the same tim^.
Art. 3. This Board will settle all comoercial controversies con-
- 3 •
oemlng almonds : it will give a-vards based on the riales of the
official class if in'at ion agreed tqpon by the Chamber.
Art. U. In case of a request for expert awards the samples shall
be taken f;*om the bulk of tbs" goods' in the manner which the President
of the $oard. shall consider suitable. The President of the Board shall
empcwer special agents to .collect samples "in' the districts of the
provinces; ■, this collect Ion ^.-shall be Carried but according to prescribed
rules and shall be gratui'tous. i '■• • • '
Art. 5« l^s sample must weigh bdtween 3 and 5 kgs. (6-1/2 and 11
pounds) and shall remain in the custody of th3 Chamber of Comnerce
until the arbitral 5i«r^d shall have been given, ~ after which the sample
shall ."be returned to -the o.vner.' ' , *
Art'. '6.. .'^en the request' for eipei't o^ardC com&s f rbm abroad,
ths sample, which inust -be of 5 to 5 kgs, (6-1/2 to 11 pounds), must be
sent carefully paclsed to the Chamber of Conirerce; the Board, however,
gives no- guarantee as regards the taking of the sample; it is the
business of "the pa:rtrie8' concerned to tak6 precautions in this matter.
Art. 7, The Boarfi: has the right to avail itself of the services
of ether technicians chosen by "itself, either for taking samples or ' '
for giving expert asvards; under these circiznstances the techniciaai
takes the place cf caie of the judges whose honorarium he receives.
•> ■ ■.,,.'^v ■ ■' ■
- Art. &• -Anyone des-lring expert award in cases of dispute must
pay to the Secretariat of the. Chsciber of Coinnerce, in addition to
registration dues, -stan^) dues, and; the regular dues of the Chaniber,
the following suras in advance: ••* .- •
30 Italian lira f or du&s' to the Board,
5 Italian lira for dues to the Chancellery, -""
•2- Italian lira for copying. ■
» ' • • ■
Art. 9, 7/hoever desires an expert award only for the purpose of
sending goods abro^ need pay but hsOf the above tariff.
Art. 10, The Board of Experts shall have ^urisdictioi over the
whole province of Bari for dealings outside- the Province and iabroad, and
for local transactions within tto Province iteeir.' ' ^ ' -
Approved by the .. Chambe r of Coimeros ahd Industry' of the
Province 9f Bart At. th« sitting of J\aly 2U, I5l2, '• ;
The Secretary ,
A, Db Tullio
•" JL'v *•
NEW REGDLATIONS FOR THE BAHI AIMOND TRADE.
Since 190^ (sitting of Sept. 2U) o-or 6iamber of Commerce,
taking into cronsideration the .great impCrtano of the almond trade >
with the imanimous assent of our exporters and Wder standing the wishes
and needs of the foreign hij^rs, who were 'the chief purchasers of our
valTaahie- prod-aoB, with a view to thia greater preservation of our rights
and interests in said inarkBts> has "been formtClating as ' classification
of almonds :f pr the trade of .the Province . *
This code of mercantile practice, 'which was equally «pe 11
received at home and abroad, jyas in I912 (sitting of July 2U) ccorpleted
hy the creation of a Board of ^ Experts charged with applying the rules
and settling all trade disputes' concerning almonds. This Board has
proven extrpraly useful and rendered, signal service.
■. • • t •.,■....; ^ -■ ' - •■■.■ •
Time, -vhich changes end destroys all th'ings, has made' naces-^
sary some changes in the classification of I909. It is therefore
rBcessary to adapt- the .written rule^" to changed conditions. . This
neoBSfity dees not arise soie.lV from a chaiige 'in our personnel or in
our f,irras; the markets haye also . changed and €heir respective impor-
tance has altered* ' '*.
fB^pQated requests ha^e reached 'us from abroad regarding a
hotter and- more modam regulaticn of the almond trade and our exportew
hacro Joined in the request. A new and authoritative voice, that'of
the Banks, has made itself heard; thsse today have -a large amount' of
capital interest in, this r t^ade • , , .
» • ■ - • » .
■■' • • . . • • • .
Taking all this into consideration our off ice has compiled,
in cooperation with a mixed comnission of expert traders and Bank
■reiDPesentatives-, the following rjiles which the Council is invited to
consider and senqtipn.
Ngy EXPORT CLASSiyiCATIOy . . • •
' , ■ ■ ■<
1. yirst Quality Bari alacnds means' a type of fruit of the
noiwal size for the year's crop, grown in the district of Apulia, ex-
dLxdlng the crops grown in the neighboring districts and especially
the Abruzsi, Tke first quality Bari almonds may contain up to 2^ of
hitter almcnds, not more then 1% of rind to l^t of natural moisture.
2. All sweet almonds sold under the nsBre of their district
of origin such as, "And-ria," "BISCEGLIE," "Molfetta," "Giovinazzo,"
and "Modugnb," etc.^ oust represent the average type of the year's
crop, not impoverished, of the respective local produce, they must he
- 11 T
free from titter almonds; a maximum of li of rind to Vf> of natural
moisture is alla-red. Bari bitter almon ds must he grovm in the dis-
trict of Apulia and must not contain mere than 5^ of street fruit; a
majciraum of 1^ of rind and 1^ cf natural moisture is allcjved^
Many foro5gn consigmrehts arrive at their dsstinaticn
with a losG of mo.e than 1% abovr;? the 1^ allayed, 3i^ch io5«; being
cor+ifi^d 07 ti!? p-oblic weigher sack by sack on arrival of the- goods.
Tbj Apriien'^exDrit?:' shall be liBld liable tc meiro iiocl -ohe difference.
Any lobs which sh-^ll be found equal on all the racks shall b? con-
sidered a n:^,t'aral io':3, tfcorefore all losses due to thoft or ot'rsr
case<3 -of foi'ce 'inigsur- are ^3xcluded and must be recouped from in-
U. Tte foreign purchaser cannot refuse parcels of sweet
almonds containing up to 2^ cf rind and moisture and up to ^p of bitter
alnitndo but - whilst ho is still held to his obligation to pay for the
gccis a?cordin,'5 tc the contract mado - he may demand an allcwence frcm
the seller where the goods do not come up to those specified by the
bargain regularly ratified on both sides,
5. The same regu-lations apply to parcels of bitter almonds
containing up to 2^ of x-md and moisture and -op tc 20^ of s'.vset fruit.
In cas:>s where the above percentages shall be exceeded the buyer is
not ccmptiiled to accept th3 gooda and will be entitled to tal?e conr-
seq-u5nt'i?gal action agiirist the seller, according to the laws on
ccLji-rcialfrpud: ?.n such case he must apply either to the Chamber of
ConEarC' cf lari or to Italian tribunals,
6. In case of dispute the receiver most apply to the local
Chamber of Ci-irnTiCrcfj so that it may, with the least possible delay,
take samples according to the follwvin? rules:
(a), in quantities of not over 5O sacks, one original
sack fror. the pocds compiainod of shall he taken; this shall be sent
to the Char-ibei' ..1 Cjiflr/.rce of Bari; the vender must reimburse the vali»
of such sack at the price in the contract;
(b) in quantities of less than 50 sacks, the saanple shall
be taken from a mlc^txue of the different sacks forming the lot.
7« In plaoes whore th^re is no Chamber of Connerce, the re-
ceiver must riyuuisr. vhe Ir be r vent ion of someone delegated by tl^s
President Cf th: notrott Cbnrher of Conxnerce who shall be fully author-
ised to caiTy cii'.- th^ cnO^r'-.ak-ing and who shall take the samples accord-
ing to the rules laJd dtvvn in (a) and (b),
(Approved by the Chamber cf ConmeroB and
Industries' cf Bari on Iteb. U, 1921),
^ X2 -
EDUCATION IXCTTED FOR rEVELpPJ-En' OF GILlIgS .
illthoTigli the new system of grading has been off icicaiy
promulgated it is by no ineans true that it is being followed even by
a m&jority of the merchants, A grviat amount of educational work has to
bo oone and it will be aany years before grading in Italy is on the
ta^e level as the grading in southern Spain. It mi^t be noted, how-
ever, that the superiority of the Spanish grading is due entirely to
the German, other European and iciericfen houses operating in that cotm-
try. aihere are no uniform types of almonds in the Bari production
district because of the vast number of different trees. Okie finds
•even or ei^t varieties of trees even on the smallest fams. The
Bari £zperiu.ental Station (under Professor Dr. Ehrico Pantanelli) has
gathered sang^les from 200 varieties of trees in that Province alone and
new varieties are contiamaily being discovered.
At the present time there are almost as many grades as there
are firms dealing ivith almonds. Almonds are sorted out according to
the province from which they come and according to sixe - small, large
fl*ts, etc. There is a price range of about 300 lira per 100 kilos
(26.3/ per lb.) between the best and the poorest varieties. (Conver-
sions on the basis of the par value of the lira) The trade is also
very much disorgieaiized by the opening since the war of innumerable new
houses which have no f iniucial standing or credit. These firms pick
XE^ lots throu^ the cooantry and sell them to the exporters or export
fhe teiipt)ation to be careless in grading is, of course, veiy
great. In prewar times Germany took the bitter almonds for industrial
- 13 ^
purposes. There is now absolutely no market for these bitters.
Germany took everything - good, bad and indifferent, but now that the
Unitted .States .apd^Jh^ United Kingdom are calling for nothing but the
bes^ grade of. almonds, tuere is no outlet for the bad, broken and
inferior nuts. These are, therefore, a dead loss unless they can be
loaded into graded stock. Older firms, however, vte working hard to
put the business of Bari on a firm footing and to introduce grading
that will con^are with the best Spanish systems. Biese older fims,
unfortunately, are in the minority and great care must be 'Sxercis'ed
by all .Americans dealing in that section of the country.' '*'
PRICE QUOTING TO BE PLACED ON A BUSINESS BASIS.
There is now a movement on foot throu^iout the Province of
Bari to establish a Chamber of Exporters ^ad to put the question of
prices and (iuot«^tions on a more businesslike basis. Reports on the
condition of the crops and general prices are now issued monthly "by
the Bari Chai^er of Commerce. Ohis monthly report ir^ding received
regul«*rly by the Bureau of Agricultural Economics. The ikierican trade
in B^ti is calling for a long, smooth skin.-.3d almond, running 40 to the
ounce, excludii^ twins", brokens, etc. There is also a call ior similar
almonds of fine quality for confectionery use - these are called
Petit 3s Tries. The larger and cheaper demand is for the grinding almond
which includes, of course, broken and twins. It should be noted that
quite a number of orders for grinding almonds placed in ^ain are fill-
ed from the Bari crop by merchants in Spain and Sicily, who getting
orders from the Iftiited States and other countries, fill them from the
- 14 <.p
It can safely be aald that wdiile the product ion is not all
that could he desired and its distribution is entirely or largely in
incoDgpetent hands, the Bari markst is going to be a source of severe
coiqpetition in the very near future, The quality of the aliLonds in
that region is hi^ snd^there is money to be zcade in their distribu-
tion. The Italians through their Chamber of Ct^anerce and a few
prominent houses are maMng a veiy determined effort to control the
aarkatljig of this product and to iiqprove the grading. The Italian
dealers realise that if they do not do this themselTes. Qenam. English
and imerican houses who have already taken charge of the distribution
of the BpmiMh putput, wUl also establish themselves in Itcly uraess
the Ztalifiiia make tibe best of the ppportmities which they now h^tve
before the?u There ivill also be an i^rovesent in tie sLU«tlity of f^
almonds, ftm Department of Igpiculture is working with the peasants
and there is every reason to e^ct a realbut slow improvement in
•;etnod8 of farming. At present everything is very primitive. The
use of far^r cachinery is, of course, out of the quastion owing to the
§sneral cqnf ornfetion of tiie land.
Ivan the grain in thio region is threshed by driving luules
and horses over it on a threshing floor. Moat ef tne cultivation is
««» by hand. Pruning of trees is said te be a gre^t art .icoided dovn
from father to son. Ihe truth is that tree pruning is an art, but
the ItAliMi peasants do no^. krm a great deal ikbout it - as <ine scisn-
tlf ic agriculturist said . vhan a tree gats too big tuay juat go out
■nd chop off sons of the branches. There is Viry little fertiliier
used in that section. Thevuse of ; sprays is confined almost entirely
• ' " _ • ■' --i ." ■■', .■ ; •','•■
to certain large estates which are scientificfilly farmed by graduates
of the various agriculturlEd schools, eapecially at Portici where
Professor Gaetano Briganti has done notable work.
The prewar cost of planting and maintaining one hectare
(2.471 acres) of almonds in the Bari district, diaring the first year
of cultivation, according to the calculations of Professor laiigi
Vivarolli, the Director of the i^icultural School at .^ndria, and of
Dott. Michaole Marchib, a laaidbtemer and agriculturist, was as follows!
" ;Dollars (a)
"1. Preparation of the soil; for plants :
•^^ at a distance from each other of 13 5
"" ^ meters in all directions: ?
70 holes at 2.50 lira apiece . ....: $ 33.78
• •• . • • •
2.J Young plants, 80 at 80 centimes a piece : '
(bougil outside) : . ^^•^^
3. Transporting and planting same, 4.60 t
lira pex: five ' 4.44
4. Fertilizing ^nd c«,rriage of fertiliser, J
at 1. 50 " liri. per plant Z 20.36
- • .
5. Props, 70 at 25 cms '..- • 3»38
6. Quota of general e:^enscs and land tsjc; ?
equal to 4% on capital (2,000 lira) : 15.**4
7. Interest at '5'^ for six months for pra- t
lin:inc.ry expenses - 1.91
8. Interest aX 5-^ on land capital i ...... . : 19.30
Totcul liahilities at and of first year : $.109.32
From this deduct proceeds from vegetables : .
. .grown between the rowa of ala.ond trees in :
first ye6.r . : /. . ^^v- ..... : 7.72
Fin«.l liabilities at the end of first year : $101.60
(•) Can¥ef«ioii«»,on has%B of the par value of the lira
^ich is worti 19^:5 t&alm in U. S. iciorrtttiey.
Ilic gain, from crops grown botwe-ai the trees can be set off
agcirst this cost in the pore level sections. The &bove is n»rely an
eBtix£.t'-i, bc^vrcvor, and at present the figures would probably have to
bo doubled, Ons csnnot. estiaate the cost on mountain fam* -.vhere the
farmer and his whole fcmily, male and female, work among the trees for
a bare subsistence, Whereever there is a level space on vhe irountain
side a bulMiead is put igp and a tree is planted. When harvest time
cooes the crop is harvested by the family. The same labor chores and
dries the nuts and cracks them in the .evenings and on wet dsys.
It is very difficult to determine the value of the land or
the cost of productaon in Italy. ' The orchards, except in the case of
/ -^ ' •
-% - < • . ...
large estates*, have be6n planted at random according to the necessities
of the pe&sant faruter. The farm hat gohermlly been handed down from
father to son and sales are vejry infrequent. Such a thing as atteiqpt-
ing to ishow a definite return or a definite investment is uaiknown-
IShen one tree die's another is put in its place. If almonds happen to
be doing well thfiit year, an almond tree will replace the olive or
other dead trees;, if olives are paying better they will replace aloonds.
JI T STAZTBifflrg OF LIVING KE^TTER CGMT^^1ITI0!J POSSIBLE .
Tha peasants are in raost cases miserably poor and have few
wants. They live for the most part off the produce of their small
holdings and their expenses are paid from the cash profits of the
Alaumd crop. Th& standarda of lifting aS0 so low that competition with
. v .
- 17 -
Italian almonds for. grinding is eventually going toAe particularly
difficult for .American growers. Unless by Intensive cultivation and
careful selection of stock we raise only the highest grades of almonds
for the confectioners' trade., we cannot succeed in making the growing
of almonds a pscring proposition. In the raising of. rough grinding
almonds it would not appear that we can accwigplish much if our grower*
are to maintain the hi^ standards of living to which th(?y are accus-
tomed. On the large estates in Italy^jaore modem methods are vised
but cultivation is still extremely. primitive, cheap hand labor being
used for everything. With labor running at considerably less than
30 cents a daj' there is not the same call for. efficiency, and the
people themselves seem quite content with very little.
THE ALMOND IKDOSTRY IN SICILY .
Almonds axQ groBm in every part of Sicily. Tjcie principal
sources of st^ly, however, are along the east coast from jaessina to
Syracuse snd tn the interior from Caltanissetta to Girg^nti. Although
practically all of the almond concerns in Sicily operate under Italian
names they are owned in mai^ cases by foreigners. In Sicily we have
three classes of almonds, the razor blade varieties or long slender
almonds used by confectioners for sugar coating, the rounder almonds
of good shape for the chocolate coating and- almond bars, and the
rou^ grinding almonds.
The production of almonds in Sicily amounts to from 120,000
to 150,000 hundred kilo bales (26,455,000 to 33,170,000 lbs.) asmually.
A hundred kilo bale weighs 220.46 lbs. Syr^xuse is the home of the
- 18 ^
Jvola elnKaid sottetime called Abe raxor blada variety, the finest
almond grown in Italy. It is -used by the "boBt grades of i^-erican and
■ ■• ■. • . .
Irencii conf.9ction©r8 and is s^d to coiqpare favorably with the oest
Jordan atoonds of the Malaga district in Spain. Those last, however,
are nmch hetu.er toown*
Ihere is the sank? troTable in Sicily as in Bari with the
gTidas, thong!! th- ho-uses "being older and more tnoroughly established
are 9Jore d^pendsble. Taere are about twenty- five Imown varieties of
almond tripes in Sicily of ^ich only about one-tnird j reduce nuts that
Con be included in the Avola gredu. Ihe output of Avolas iiiLounts to
about 4,409,200 lbs. annually. Bxe Avolas are first hand shelled and
sorted And thv3n graded, usually through sieves, lliase grades »re very
strict and only for the finest trade. All misshapen and broken and
twins .ajre rigorously excluded,
Therc! ^j-e four grades of Avolas, as follows:
37 - 37
Tr*& socond class of nuts are the letnas which grow along
tiM coast. Th^se nuts £^*i used for the canOy tnd taffy trade, for the
chocolate coated tsadc- and for the chocolate b^r trade. In this trad©
m M^ class alsond is desired, but the sha^e of the nut is not as
• Id r
important as in the sugar aliLond trede. The Aetnas are getievaiiy
divided into two grades, the. Aetna Currunt and the Aetna Hand Picfed.
The former conjjrises tha genert^l run of th.j nutc as they
come, with twins and broken nuts excluded, while the latter is made
^x^ of hand picked varieties, which are further divided into the four
No. per ounce
After these grades, which are not official tharo are count-
less other grades made up by individual firms under trade names to
accor*^odate certain lines of trade. A firm for example r.-yy put 'ag fi.
fancy grade CcJ.led "Gradu 1" for the use of the chocolate coated btgr-
ers, another called "Grade B" fortaff^ mal^rs, and another called
"Grade 0" for chocolate bar nakers. .
T-ie Caltanissetti3. to Glrgenti district produces the well-
known P&lma Girgcnti lasln^ond, one of xho be^t of the Italian alaonds.
This crop is sold mostly .dn bulk and is divided into the- Current and
Hend-picked grades, vrhicr. are free from c-ll twins and broksns. Ifce
greides. ar4j as follows:
Grade : Sieve
^, • • • .
Palma-Girgenti Current : .
Large : 36
Extra large v.? 37
* L >
« ^,' -
Gra de ; P er Ounce.
!Qie nand^picked are: *
largest : 20
Large . . :: 24
Mediiim. : 28-30
Sicall : 35-40
Hie firms handling the Falaa-Girgenti almonds also handle
a number of private brands for special uses as i^-., the case of the
ietnas. Many of the Palme- Girgcmt is are handled throu^^ Palermo where
there are large houses handling not only these almonds hut also those
from the east coast. There are also exports from this district of
UDShelled almonds usually bleached for the grocery trade. These are
sold in thsee grades. Current, Hounds and Flats.
M ETHODS OF PROiyjCTIOgr HAPHAZARD .
is in sonithem Italy the aluionds of Sicily are produced liy
ignorant peasants and it is difficult to ascdrtain anything in the
line of* the actual cost of production. The same low level of intvlli-
genca and illiteracy prevails and the same condition of the entire
faiLily working in the fields and in tho orchards is found. Most of
the orchards are an rolling land or scattered over the steep mountain
•ides whereever there is room to place a tree. HI of the land it
terraced. The stone used for the terraeing is close at hand, and the
amount of labor put into stone walls is enormous, ^e acreage of
Sicily, and os;ecially of the Qirgonti district, is steadily inereaa-
ing and it is eoeaervatiidly datiiBat0d that it has doubled in the last
- ■'. jt- ■"
The trees which produce tiio Avolas grow only to the south-
east of Syracuse and are very difficult to handle. Biey are very
easily affected 1:^ changes of ten^eratiire , and the crop is often lost
or "badly dacagQd by frost. Attenpts to use these trees in other pa»ts
of Sicily have boen unseccessful. Those trees aro of course the heat
payers and great care is taken of the^ They, axe carefully cultivated
and pruned and the ground is treated 'vith artificial fertiliser. It
is claimed that the pric3 of aln.onds is so . low that th;;? use of
fertilizer in other parts of the Island is impossible.
Professor Tamaro gives the following two foruAila* as tha
best fertilizers for almonds?
(3.) S-cable manurs ..:..*... 66. Impounds.
Tnornas' slag. 8.82 "
StLi-phate of potash. ... . 8. 82 "
^T-iolen rage. 8. 82 "
Cha:.k 8. 82 "
(2) St iblo manure 66. 14 "
Powdired hone 8. 82 "
Chlorate of potash..... 2.20 "
rroolen rags 8. 32 "
Chalk 3.82 "
DISTRIBjTIOIT of SICILI.^T iJUhrmi CBQP ^K)BE ETTICIS}?! .
On th^ jvhole tha distribution of the almond croj of Sicily
is much more intelligently arAd honestly handled t^ija is the case with
the Bar! crop. Grading t':iouga not up to the Sr^ejiish standards is
ade(iuate and is improving. On the 3ast co?st at iviossice , Catarda and
^raeuse irachinery for grading and shelling is being intrcduced with
considerable success. There is not a great deal that the ii.;33rican
producer oan Xeam from the Italiaiis In tho matter of almnnd eulturo.
!L;«d*It«Lli«M in fact refor to thm tt^xirior Boxmoe^ of tue Calif omian
growdrs. - •
It is iE^ortant, hbwerer/ to keep in eloae contact witn such
Uttlian men of aeienee a* Brofeaeor liolgi fivarelXi of jindria, Enrico
fantanelli-at Berl, «aid't!a^taii6 Bi^igantl at Portici. Iliese oen are
doing Talxiablo work in tlie itield'^Sf inveatigating j^ conditions of
....»•■• ■ . '
ettmth, dise&aes and the cuiti3r6 6f almonda, and what ia more, they
are educating the jonnger gesierati'dn in scientific culture of almonda.
ISiis means that, in a few years ^i^i strides will \>o made in alsiond
culture and with endless che^ labor at the coszuand of both the B&ri
and Sicilian almond growers, and with the isjrovement in grading that
will naturally follow intelligent cultivation, almonds will assuredly
"be put on the Liarkat at prices tifeich will defy competition.
ALMONI) PROiyJCTION STATISTICS JOR ITALY ,
Ohe following table coii5>iled by the Office of Agricultural
Statistics of Italy gives the production of almonds in the shell by
districts during 1915, 1916 and 1^20:
- 23 -
Ligurict. . . .
3-ocbardy . .
Venetia . . .
Tuscax^y . . .
Abrijezi &. Molise
Campania . . i , . . .
220 , 460
140,212,560 t . 248,458,420
Note - The export figures of the Italian GoverraLent for the ten year
average, prior to 1916, indicate that the hoiLe consuiiiption of
almonds in Italy was 50^ of the national production.
VEGETATION PHASES IN ITALIAN AU^ND INDUSTRY .
Professor D. Tamairo* gives the following chart of the different phases
of vegetation of almond trees in the various sections of Italy t
5. Iv'^rciio <Sc Uiiibriu. .
6. £rnilia ......•.•.
7. Tuscany .
8. Latiun . .
9. South Adriatic :
10. South Mediterranean. . :
11. Sicily :
12. Scxrdinic-- :
« . • •
. « •
Oct. 10- ac
- 24 -
Th& iicerican alr^iond ind-ast.y niay "be interested in connection
with i«ir. Foley's review of the aluiond : industry in Italy in a report sub-
mitted to the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, U. S. Department of
Icricultiare, by .A6^rica» Consul Hoaer M, Ijrington, at Naples, Italy.,
■under date of Sept. 29,- 1922. This report reads as follows: . . - .
• . ■ . • -
"One of tha most inportant industries, from the standpoint
of international trs^e,- in Southern Itw.ly is the growing and export of
nuts and nut Dieats. During the first six months of 1922, a period that
m?y be taken as fairly typical, the value of the declared export of
nuts to the tfaited States, througQ the port of Naples made v^ approxi-
mately one sixth of the- total value of all exports for that period.
The value of the exports of alconds alon^ wjis greater than any othor one
product, witn tne exception of cheese. It must he remembered further
that tiiese figures extend only up to Juno 30th and do not cover the
time of the heaviest nut exportation, August tjad September when the new-
ly matured crop comes into the market.-
" Declared Exports for First Semester of 1922.
"During the first six oonths of 1922 the declared exports to
the United States throu^ the port of N-^les were as follows:
4. . ..^
"Tiiese »ii.ount8, according to the stc.tis.oics for all It^ly as
issued by the idaibter of Finance, constitute only a little over one
tenth of t^e tot«i e:r orts of nuts for thB whole nation, during t^iS •
tame period. As has been stated, the largest exports are during tne
fall of the year and if. predictions of exporters hold true tiiese amounts
will b3 mors than *iu».drupled.
'"*'**■ iai'fatB^^^^^^^^^ jiiiMife:.^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
^ 25 -
"Prices and Crot> Forecast s. - .
"This yearns crop of all the nuts mentioned according to the
statements of the growers and exporters, will be excellent. hS far as
tne almonds and filberts are concerned this favorable outlook is no
longer open to question. , Both crops mature in August and are nov: on
the Biarket at prices 10% to 15^ lower tuan in 1921.
"Tne chestnut and walnut crops do not come into market until
the latter part of September. So far, in the advance selling, prices
are about 30^ laver tnsn in 1921. This is partly due to the dry weather
during the early part of the year, which materially checked tiie fly pest
which ruined a large part of the 1920 and 1921 crops. It is believed
that production generally will be at least 25^ greater taan in 1921.
"Current Market Quotations .
"The current quotations for almonds as given by the Banca di
Boma are as follows :
Price - Lira.
Naples, sweet, shelled .
hard in shell . .
soft " "
sweet, Sijelled .
sweet in shell. .
bitter in sneli.
Catania, sweet, she lied. . .
sweet i in shell.
bitter, shelled. .
Palermo , Cavaliera
1,300 a quintal
■ 185 '^
"The above prices are per quintal of 220,46 pounds and have
been converted into An^rican currency at the rate of 23 lira to a dollar.
The prices for filberts do not vary uaterially, ranging from 300 lira
($13.05)per quintal to 350 lira (t}:15.22),
"Choice Grades Bring High Prices ,
"Naturdly the sweet shelled almond brings the highest price.
Quality, however, should not be Judged entirely on the price. Tne
Naples aliaond brings the higaest prices , but it is not generally con-
sidered to be £j& good 8ts the Bari, which costs less th«n any of tne
• 6r6 —
Others. This ia to he accomitad for by the fafct that' the NsOJles
almond has a very hard husk end the labor anu loss involvijd in pre-
paring them is nearly tan par* csnt greater than in the casa of the
Bari nuts. -
"Qtt the «rhole, it is safe to say that the Bari cdniandB are
the best prodiicad in Italy. as. regards flwor. They are, however, ex- -
celled by tii. Sicilian product in the percentage of oil. There is,
moreover, another difference bet-vcsan the t^ro kinds. The B«ri almond is
of th^ shape most familiar in the United States, 'irrecularly spatulate,
coming to a point at the tqjper end. Tn.3se aliuonds are either eaten
raw, roasted or made into csndy. The Sicilian and Ne«*politan nuts ». on-
the other hand, are more nearly round and arc used either for oil or
for the ixanufacture of nougat.
!^-Products Paty for Shelling,
"iVom the husks of the sw^ it almonds end the entire fruit of
the bitter almond come products that pay t.x2 forr.er rforthe cost of .
■hellinc the ediblo nuts and give him a clear profit on their sale.
Some of the bitter almonds are mixed 7it:i the swaet variety in the
■ oaktng of candy, to gii^c i more plauant flavor, but the larger part
of the bitter crcr is pressed for the oil. This oil is used in the
anaufacture of various cosi^etics and yields hydrocyanic acid when broken
1^, Itto aXiond Lieal, thj cako after the oil has been expressed, is also
used in the aanufactura of cosxuetics. Ifydrocyanic *^id is also' obtain-
ed from the hus)is.
•-•Another use to which the bitter oil is put is In the miknu>-
facture of imitation -kigostura bitters.
"^Annual Production in Southern Italy .
•It is difficult at the present time to Judge accurately
ufaat the production of axy of the principal nut crops will total. The
walnut crop for instance aiaounted to &,SC0,OX zounds in 1&21. This
year the esti^Lates place the acount at ^out 12^375,GpC pounds.
"It seems probable that the o^vistnut crop, which is progress-
ing satisfactorily -vill be abou-t 2,2;i%,000 pounds or over. Tae almond
crop has been variously estin-mted and will probably be around 5,000.000
pooands. This is thm weight in shell, not the net weigat."
» 2? -
THE AH^OND INP USTRY IN SPAIN . .• .
Almond trees are sca-ttered all over the east and south coast
of Spain, from Barcelona in the nort^ to Ltelaga in the south, and oTer
the Balearic Islc^rids. Tne Chamber of Commerce of Palma, the capital of
the Island of Ms^Jorca, estimates that'the area devoted to the projduo-
tion of al:iionds in the Balearic Islands is over 20,000 hectares (^,420
acres). The alu-onds produced in these Islands are grocvn both on the
larger estates and by peasants on soall farms. The -natives are consid-
erably in adv,3nce of the growers on the Spanish mainland. Hieir homes
are much better and the average of intelligence is higher. Ibero is
not the saxLe struggle for e::istence the».t is seen on the S]:ani8h Tr.a-|ni|irt4
AiimFne co:^istitute (X£SH crop of i^ajobca.
The aliLond crop of Majorca, tne largest of the Balearic
Islands, constitutes the cash crop of the country, de nuts are put
away wnen cured and shelled during the year as the necessity for cash
arises. Natives are thus able* to hordt their almor*ds for a better price
than the less provident growefs on the mainland. For this reason we
find the crop of the Balearic Islands coming into th^ market at all
ti;i^s of the year. Thj almonds grown in the Island of i^orca are used
mostly for grinding and for the confectioneiy tr«>de. There are only
two really high class confectioneiy almonds grown on the Island. These
are the Inca and tne Felanitax.. The 'quantity of these grades is very
small and coapared witn the large volume of grinding almoi^ it is al-
- 29 -
Xhe %ia&llt7 of the Majorca almonds is generally "better than
that of those groivn on the mainland. Tiaey are extremely aweet and cox>-
tain no hitters* Tiie trees hlossooi along in Janiiary and the nuts are
gathered in Sept^oiberp Ihere is considerable daoiage from cold during
the Bonths of Seoruaxy and Uarch but by Jane the crop is considered
safe. She average crop for a good year is commercially considered at'
40,000 - IOC kilo bales (8,818,400 Iba.).
QROWEHS IN MAJOHCA SEEK MAHKET IN THE UNITED STATES .
. % to a few years ago the almonds igroim in Majorca were.
chiefly shipped to Marseille and marketed throo^ IVance. Now they are
marketed througti iisportant houses both in..Palma de Mallorca and throu^
the r»taer iiqportant al.^ond hoiises at Tarragona, Beus and Valencia, which
are sitiaated on the mainland, ^ile the Germans have made purchases in
Majorca, Getrmsn houures h&vc not been established thera. .ISie aluonds are
sold since the war to Indeed cJid the I]hi|«d' States , Trance and a few of
the Central Spires. Is in the case of the Italian almond growers there
is BOW a eearca for new. metxlets ee^ >dcially in the United Kingdom and
the tloited Stfttes,. to take t:::c place of those lost by th& collapse of
the Central iSajpires, ; -
BATKAHIC ^LMOMIg COMPETE riTH ITALIilN .*
It is generally considesad that the almonds of the Balearic
Islands come directly into, coupe tit ion with those of Bari and. Sicily.
Tne producers . on. these Islands atteispt to keep, their prices. lower than
tiLQBQ of Italy*. How6vet, tnere is some trade even between
chants in It^^y- and Majorca. Toe «amonds are so siuiilar that advanta-
•I ... ( - •
geo\is . orders are filled either from the Bari or Majorca prodiaction.
Almonds are graded into' two kindsV the Proprietario and the
Corriente. Tdere are some hend-picked. almqndb -vhich are sold as select-
ed grades. Tiae Corriente are the reniains after the selected are taken
from the imgraded stock. *^'91he Proprietario is the grade as it comes froa
the g-rowersr • < v*'- •* ' '
Toe following gives the average price of Majorcan almonds
during 19 20 and 1S»21:' . ...
• . • .... ' •■
\ 1920, J
r Pesetas : Cents \
' Pesetas : Cents
: Per.cTt. : Per lb. :
r Per cwt. : Per lo.
Corriente '. ,.;
i - • • «
r 385 : 54.8 ;
: 565 • ' r 52.1 ;
; 315 : 44.8 \
:^ 273 : 38.8 J
r 408 : 4&.3
392 : 47.4
: 367 * : 44.3 .
r 345 : 4l.7
Note: Average veliie of pesvjta in U. S. current during
1920 amounted to ^C. 15936 and to $0.135314 dioring
1921, according bo the U. S, Federal Ifes^rve
Boatd. One^ cwt. is equivalent to 112 lbs.
Tne general farn-ing of the Bi*learic Islands is rather ^igh-
class. On the low lands there are terraces to provide against the
washing of rains, and in the hilly section the land is terraced rigat
"up to the top of the mountains. Labor is entirely by peasants who eaxm
from 20 to 40, cents a" day. Considerable fertiliser is used througpout
the Islands. • ' •"■• ' '
Js 5a '.Italy it is <iuite diffidJUlt to ascertain the c^t of
production. We find tnroughout Spain that very little is being done
_. nil _
• "by. tile Depajptiiwaats of A^4<mltt«m and Rt&tistics &re rery badly kept,
^o badly ii^sed tuc.t tiic ganai:^! luercantil© public pajr* no attention
to them. Fairly good almond land, hxmewer, om b6 jAiJ^chased in the
Islands for about #31.00 to U7-QC pe? •ere.
" * BAIEARIC METHOpS OF SALE,
', ,■"■,; V !*- : - ' " • • ■ "■ ' ' '
A conalderable portion of the output of the Balearic X&landi
Is handled throTi^ the hoTises at Beus and Valencia. It will be noted
that there is conuomication by .sea with both Valencia and Barcelona
from the Balearic Islands. The trade, however, is lasually handled
through Bei2s iwiere there are important ^pusos handling also the Tarra-
gona prod'odtion. .
*- - As .In the Italian alooad trade we find the ▼ariooas dealers
# . • • •
aaklng lapnajoasd grades of ti^e^ own. laia pr^ctics has orignated
from thfe fac[t that certain defers have cotoe to know the wiihts of ceiv
tain large chocolate bar and aluxmd pasta producers end ge^ ^3^ grades
i^ich will. particularly appeal to taese raanufacturers. The sales are
made usually to the tj-ited States on the cost and freight basis - the
insurance being usually placed in Now York. Ibr London sales it is
^r^ -.ost ana tr..^ V^oa. B. ^^ ^ ^^,, .,,, ^
tslegr»phic offers ^v^iicii ara good for twenty-four hours, engages in
asbhangs aiiOdiig longer offers iiEpossihle.
The island of Ivis*. the smallest of the Balearic •groi5> , lias
quite «\.iE5.artant production .of paper Saelled alr-onds. It is usually
considered that a good comLercial crop of the Island of Ivisa amounts
to about 15,000 bales (unshellod) of 100 kilos, which is equivalent to
3,306,900 lbs., a kilo weighing 2.2046 lbs. avoir. These are sold to
the grosery trade througa dealers in Valencia*
SP/iNISH MAIITLATTD DIVIDED INTO TH5EE COMMERCIAL SECTIONS ,
For coiai:ercial purposes the almond growing districts on t^
SjcJiish ciainland are divided into three sections. The first is the
Tarragona district which e:ctends from Beus to Costel. This district
produces from 4,409,000 lbs. to 5,512,000 lbs. The second district.
sometimes known as the Valencia district or the.llicanti district, mx^
tends from Costel to Granada. The production of this district is abo]Qt
11,023, OOd lbs. The third district is the (Canada and Southern dis-
trict adjacent to Milage, Ofee production of this district is about
8,598,000 lbs., of which 5,036,000 lbs. are Jordan almonds £nd the
balance Valencias, sometimes knovm as the Malaga- Valencia varieties.
The above figures of production wwre given by a number of leading mer-
chants in the various cities of the districts mentioned. Barcelona is
the leading ex^rort point for Northern Spain, Valencia, and Alicanti for
Central Spain, and Mala,^ for Soutncxn Spain.
In the northern district we have principally grinding almonds
which are used for almond paste and better grades for chocolate coated
alnonds, chocolate bars, salted alnionds, etc. In the soutaem district
we have the ni^er grades known as Jordans, wtoich are used by con-
fectioners excl\3Sively for su^ar coated «il^.orids. There is a very large
Coll for this class both in t^e Iftiited States and ftreat Britain. The
t V ^
trees, hotrm&r, «ai wMca tne JordUns ^row igre yery susceptible to
frost £nd ccn only be* r^lbed in fe&df ftQixliA^r-i^diatrict*.
GF^An^JQ IN THE ?^:R^iGOVA DISTRICT.
■•r; . . .
The T^rrs-ioiic,. or the nortnem district lies dor..- tn? coc^tal
plains just sout^ of Barcclom- T»g iie.ve her© a peasent popuiation
raising aliuonds in a ir^itHer prir^dtive fasnicm tgL'on the poorest land
available. The fax:^ aro in i^w^ 'caSes saall and poor. Bie trees are
irregiiarly'plante'd and in Dai^r cas^ pot carufully <?ultiva.t©d. As a
resTilt tlie almond^ prodiiccd arc i>f a ratiier low.ipade. OSic sr^^ding
and cic.ckin£ is ddnb by tise poilisaat«:.or the speculators who b-uy from
th© country storekeepers and prade baf oijo selling to exporters. iU-
thou^ at the present time the greater part of the grading is done by
hand, successfial Kiichines have bJeai introduced both for cracJcing and
grading, (kadis^ in thia saction has not yet attained the efficiency
of the southern district, due to the fact that the aliLonds are of a
router type- and art copsider^ibly cheaper than the finer alnionds further
!lSae principal almonds 'of this district are the Esperansa
Choisie, the Eaperafiza tourantes, thae Lar^^tas, the Jyifcrconas and the
Conmunas Roude, These are divid6d^.as' follows!
Hand-pi cired unifor:*- nuts from
. .fdaich all twins, brokens, etc,
Or the alnionds' as they are re-
. • coived f rwr. the farmer;
<^aded: Choice - Large, '
Choice • Small,
Marconast ..*.,.... Graded?
First 17 - 19 to the ounce.
- Finest 23 - 25 " " ■ •
• Medium '26 - 28 " •
Venus 30 - 32 » "
Conmunas Eounde: Hand-picked - broken, twins, etc.
Proprietaire - as tney cone from
• • ■ ■ the faT:ii.
The average price per 100 pounds, f.o.b. Tarragona for
Esperanza Qioisie, Espertoiza- Courantes and for Larguetas received during
1930 and 1921 were as follows: •
Average price per 100 pounds,
Esperanza Choisie ....*. i
Espercmza Courantes. . ...... .i
HAimLING AND CULTIVATIOl^ OF TAERAGONA ALMONDS .
These almonds are handled chiefly throu^ dealers at Tarragona
and Reus and are- sold" to the Thiited States ahi Great Britain. There was
alAo a'Consideirable trade with Franc© during the present' year (1922) dias
to the fact that the Province crop this year was practically a failure.
» 34 -
It might ale o. "be noted that tjaere is a consid3r*ble tr^de tuare in
Majorca almonds.. . Hae^^aies in the T.irr&gonii district to New tori: and ""
IiOtidQii mJtB <m tHe-baBia of coat and freight. Credit is uaiiaaily est£.b- -
•'-•■■:■,■ • . . • . . ..
lisiied in London fox ths purpose of jayinfe for conBignmeni.s.
The land on whicJa the almonds grow is the poorest and cne^^pest
■ ' . ■ • • . ':.••-'•
liacestone land in the.district. . "llaconds are foxaid only on the l^.d'wliere
aliaonds can depend on rain for moistiire. !Ihis is the countiy waere good
oranges can "be grown and where irrigation is possible. There is ex-
eel lent irrigation on most of tHe'Towlancl Tjpon the entire Spanish ccistal
plain, and oranges, IciLons and. rice take the place of almonds wnerever
irrigation is i:ossihle "sincethoy are a more profitable crop. Hie v&lue
of the laxid in this district runs from 500 to 650 Pesetas per hectare
•(|3& to %h\ per acre aX nqraoal exchange) , Fertiliser is not extensively
iised in the admond orchards of this section, as the prices realized are
not high enoTigh to meet the expense. Phosphate and nitrate fertilizers
are -used in some ca&es« jbut not' e:ct8nBively. '
CECTEEHS OF DISTRIBUTION FOB CEHTML SPAIN ,
The middle distript of Spain h^ two important sections of
distribution - Vfr-lancia on the north and' ^icanti on the South. Both
are ports of call for most of the British and American ships plying from
Barcelona. The conditions throu^out-'this district are very much the
same as in the district. around Ileus, allhoug^ being further south there
la less* damage' ft cm frosts and.<iuick changes of temperature. It migi^it
be well to note. that, it is the q,uick changes of temperature rather tr.an
'■' '. '■ ■ ■
the frosts whioSi do the real damage in these districts* Along the co&stal
plains exceedinglj' 4iot days are ii:-i^3iy to be foilo'ved .''ith ^ frost. On
• ...■'-.' ■ .'
.-■,-.-. • • ■ . . ►-.
sucli occc^siont the water proto-i:xc-^i:. '.vaicli .id-s '':>'e^r). frosan by tao frost
is rapidly thoived oUt in the ^^arsr- sun and converted Into vapor. In
this rapid conversi r^ ffox ice to-vstror- <i.^ tissues are ruined. Waen
^ Cold d*^ i'joil'ovve »• fraeze luc^i loss d*^.c-ji>3 is done ^^.s tixo tnaving is
slower. It is .:lso noticed tliat trees on aills with a ncrtnem exposure
are mucli le&s liable, "to daiU^gcs tkaa those witn a southern exposure.
Sone efforts ctre laade in this district to siLudge in case of frosts.
Smudge pots are unino'vn - the sii-udgint is done by burning dead trees,
... .... .•<■■.»*••
■ - . . . • ... * i.. . •
^n.OND GEAIiE S -OF THE CENTHAL DISTRICT . •
Three, ^ades of dnonds are found in the Valencie- or G€snZTt>Ji
district. They ars the iviarconas , CoiTi^-anas and Valencias, Toe ifjarconas
al:-onds are a stubby broad flat almond, used for tne chocolate coated
alLiond trade. The CouLa-onas c.re c,. longer and flatter almond than the
Iwarcon&s ^.nd are also used for tae cnccolate coated aluiond trade. TjI©
Valencia are unswlected alnionds, which are sent in bags to Sigland for
grinding. Tiic !vI&,rconas and Con-unas varieties .^re us-j*tlly sold in ■i)o;:es
c:nd are graded i^cordin<f to ths standr.rds -iven for I^rconas in tne
AliCcJiti district nentionec. in the followin,; para^ruphs.
The district about Valencia is not a heavy producing district
for al'^onds. Tlie heaviest part of the production of the central district
is about illicanti snd is handled through the houses at idicsnti. The
principal almonds in the Alicanti li^rkct arc the IvAarconas, a ro'.j:;d swe^t
. • ... • . . , " • .
aLnond, which is q.uite popiilar in the United States,
. ■•■ _ 36 ••
the M^conas are graded am follows:
ilrftt , 17 - 19 to tjae ounce.
Finest..... 23 - 25 " " "
JStediun 26-28 » •• "
Venus 30-32 » " "
There are also In this district the Planetas, wiich are graded
first 17 - 19 to the oimce.
finest 23-25 " " "
Medim.. 26-28 h « «
Venus 30-32"" "
Ivins and trolDens are rigorously ezcludsd from these gradings.
is in the northern part of the district the ailiiionds are gromn on poor
land which is strong in lime. Very little fertilizer is used. Of the
crop of 11.023.000 Ihs. only 1.653,000 lbs.* can 1)e classed as choice.
Tha fipneral ▼alue of the almond land in this district runs from 660 to
750 Pesetas per hectare ($51 to $59 per acre aft normal exchange). There
has hean q.uite an increase in the Isxia planted in almonds. ^Stxe extent
of the increase can he Judged by the fact that about 15 years ago tha
almond business ran for about three months a year, vnhereas it now nms
almost the vhole year.
im METHOEB IN CENTBAL DISTRICT .
l^e a l'yondft in the central or. Valencia 6«nd Alic&nti districts
are produced largely by the poorer peasants. As in tae northern
districts the best land is davoted to citrus gro^vir.g. Toe crops there
are handled by iLiddle man woo go throu^ the country ■o\ving whera tney
*» ft, , The usual custom in that section is to work on telephone orders
fr«a the largar cities. The bw^rs get (luotatior^s from the houses in
- 37 -
Valencia and. ^Ilioenti and bitiy. where tney afe able. Quite & little
Stock comes fro-i. the storekeepers, who get the aliiDonds froEu the small
farmers, for advances made, usually in uierciiandise, during the winter.
Thej-e is no cont rating anead for crops , or future buying.
Money lenders are not very active and little or no crop comes in throu^i
their hands. Tne final exportation of the almonds in that section is
in the hands of Aiierican, British and German firms. The middle men io
the purchasing from the farmers » shell and often grade the almooAs. The
exporting houses usually want ^|to see exactly what they are getting before
bvying. ISiere is, of course, the old contest betwean the faraer and the
distributor, but the final eacporters prefer to deal with the middle men
whoso grading is usually. pretty high class and dependable.
As in the northern district much .of the outside trade is
... . •
carried on by telegraphic orders. Tljis section is a considerable dis-
tance from efficient mail service and the telegraph is the only means of
satisfactory conmunicati'on with the outer world. There has been some
effort in late years to increase the area in higher class almonds. On
the large estates this has bean done with considerable success, though
little has been accomplished by the small fanoer. Die living conditions
in the southern part of the district are the saigas those, prevailing
in the southern district and will, therefore, be considered there.
SOUTHER^J DISTRICT PRODUCES FI^^EST ALr^iQNDS IN EUROPE.
^e production of the soutnem district, consisting of orcn^da
and the south. Its commoxcially estiniated. according to varieties, as
follows: Valencias 25,000 and Jordan 14,. 000 . kilo bibles (5.516.5C0
fc 38 -*
•ad J. 086,440 Il3S. y. Thi^ district produces tiie finest grade of
almonds in Europe, ft ib tha hmm of the Jordan alniond, ik long slid,
well flavored aljcond of 8a:x>oth tezt-ure, used eKoliisiTely by confection-
ers for s'o^.a'^coftted almonds, ftie Valeneias are a router alnrand for
t^e sJiocol&te bar, ciiocolate coated almond and general confection trade.
gRADING MT i^METiyG IN SCFJTHEHN SPAIK
Theae alitonds are graded by. tiao b-uyers wno byy from the stors-
keepers and producers. They are then handled by English, i!neriC£Ji and
Qencan hoxises and are graded by highly skilled work people. The grading
standards set \xf the dealers in Malaga are the highest laionn for Euro-
pean aluuonds. It is the standard which the Italiiois hope in tiice to
achieve. The cracking of the nuts is generally done by hand by the
peasants, who do not caalize the value of grading and are out to get
all t:iey c.in for tneif produce and what tney can put into it. Instances
are Ciuoted of IC kilos (22,04S lbs.) of soil in a 100 kilo (220.46 lbs.)
The alnnonds co:^e tarou^ the storekeepers, middle men and
Su:all aerchuits, to the eirpcrters wiio have large houses in wnich the
grading is* done by hand. The process of grading is perf onssd by women
who hi-ve become very proficient at t^ieir work. They receive f roc 80
cents to fl.OO a dey. There is practically no icachinery used for grad-
ing. Preference is given to hand grading because there is less dat^^age
to the nuts and because hand labor is cheap &::id abundant. In the process
of shelling it nas be^n found that 100 kilos (320.46 lbs.) of- nuts will
yield from 21^ to 25% of shelled fruit.
^ ^9 *
In thi& sestion of the Sr^iiis-i almond difetrict *aiw the
soutlierr. p£.rt of the cer.tr^J. district the iiifliience of the itierican,
Xr-glish, Gerni^sn and French houses is distinctly noticeable. Hhese
houses have ^percaived the iaportance of the almond trc*de and have open»
ed l©iie estJolishmarts for gra-ding. They have also encouraged the
growers to riise better qualities .of nuts, and have even gone into the
growirig business themselves. ■ . - ; • .
Both Jordan's e^nd Valeneias are graded according to Crowns,
'• > ■ . .
which is en etrbitrarj-'narae for thfe grc-ues ido;v'ted by the different fin.*.
Alt-aou-g-i tne sizes were originally ^vorked out without reference to' *feig-it,
they have been found to weigh -as folio"/6:-'
Jbrdans . . • v.-.-. . ...
7 Crowns...',. 16 - 17 per ounce.
6 " ....-, 19-20
^ " 21 - 22
^ • 24-25
3 " '.' 26 - 28
S " ...... 29 - 30
The i)<k*lc;ga or Valeneias, or Malage- Valeneias, will be found to weig.; as
. • • * •
16 - 17 per o-unce.
20 - 22 " "
•23-26 " • »•
28 - 30 " "
29v- 35 ", •?
These grades are very strict as to quality; all twins snd
broken dl-.onds are rigorously e::cluded. The work is done mostly by"hand
and the percentage of error in weight soiLetiii.es occuring is very sniall.
The aJ.2Donds are boxed in boxes of 25 or 20 pounds.
m «iO. «
-t»EICE SCiLE' Oy JOED^!!^^ i>T) MAUGA i\LI-OTpS;
The follo^ving pricj bcuIg indicates the coiLparatlvo value of
the different crows?
' • • • - ^ ' * ." ■ «•
Jord&n ilmonds. __^____
Cants vex lt#
7 stars 16 - 17 to
6 " la - ^ "
5 " 21 - 22 "
i« •» 2^. - 25 "
3 " 26 - 28 "
, 47. 1
2 " 39 - 30 "
Jord'-JQ. Broken ....
Cents i3er Id.
6 Crowns 16 - 17 to .the ->\snce •. 30.7
5 " 30 - 22 " " " : .29.6
4 » 23 - 26 " " . * : ..28.6
3 " 2b - 30 " " " : .. 2b.3
2 " 29 - 35 " •• * ? ,27.6
k:-la£.- Twins • .. 22. 9
ttLIaga Broken t 21. 8
Uisciected Kkilas;^ ! 24. 5
DEVELOB'E!^ OF Al^OND IIJIOSTRY HJ SOUTHEKT SPiJN .
In the "bosinning tne almond crop of Southern Spain was consid-
ered only as a small source of revenua for the housewife, just as eggs
in certain, districts of AMrica belong to the faiuer»s wife for pin money,
TT-^ h far-^er usu^ai;/ had ^ few alx.:ond treas in pierces where nothing else
would srow, and wnon the crop was cured and gathered the proceeds went
to the farmer's wife for pin money. It usually amounted to only a few
Pesetas. Cto tha advent of outside iLercantile houses, however, aOmond
w 41 •" . ., <
' .. ■ p ' ' '
growing becaioe r.:oi^ inoportent. 'Perceiving that tne al:i:ond crop was
essentially & luxury crop and that th-^re was much more oonqy in the
higiaer class nuts then in the rougher nuts, and that to get satisfactory
results with the higiaer class nats, grading was essential, these houses
established grading and packing organizations and time developed the
present system of grading. Bie farmer soon learned that there was mor®
money in the product .pf. hi ^r class v trees and accordingly planited more
and oetter trees and paid more attdhtion to the cultivation of iiis croip.
Fertilizer is now. coming more gsnerally into use* cjad pruning is im-
proving. The iEgprovement is slow, however, for the people are the most
hackward in Spain. ...
?7ith the "better financial showing of the almond crop a gre^^.!
interest; was taken in the raising .of almonds on the large estates.
Shis interest has been a more* recent development* so that the orchards
:• ■ • ■ '
on many of the largd estates are just beginning to bear. "Kiis of course
• . ' • • _. . -
mesne an improvem<ait in the siq^plies. It must, navever, be noted that •
this region is an,, excellent one for citrus crops and one whore the
fertility of the land permits extensive citrus culture wherever there is
suf ficiisnt water. ^ The Speaiish -^ar^ers are just beginning to realize
that almost arythihg can be grown with plenty of sun aiad water and
fertilizer. \ ' -
!Die large estates on wiiich special attention is given to al-
mond culture are situated chiefly in Granada, where the xoclsy liiaestone
•oil is particularly adapted to aloond, culture and where water is not
available for the irrigation req.uired f or citrus fruits. These estates
are yearly becoming more important. The majority of small holders a^m
tbelr own fkrms and are rather independent financially. Their needs
*re imt and are mostly supplied firom their flsirms. Ih6 almond and citrus
are the cash crops for taxes, etc.
PROPqCTIOW OF AIMONEB IN SPAIN .
The production of alaonds in Spain dwing the 1920-21 season
has heen estizoated by the Comite Xnfonoation do Producciooes Agricolas
At 1,303,302 metric qliintals X2E7,326,000 ibs,) ffithered from 18,299,656
trees on an area of 73,7^ hectares (19^,570 acres)." The following
table coGxpiled by the Spanish Qovemaent gives the de tails of this
(Official mkfttes) '
Castilla la Niseva : 1,^3
Castilla la Vieja : 778
Catal\Bi& : ie,6b7
levant© : 74,71S
Anduliacia Oriental ....: S,963
Andalucia Occidental ..: 1^,507
Xztremadura : 195
Galicia j ^-
▼ascoDfl^das ,,: 7
Cantabrice : 12
•Aragon : ¥*,972
Canary Islands : ^rSl6
MBILS \ 19^,570
■ ■ 1
The extent to ;»hich eoBnercial figures vary from the official
is indicated in the follovfing table coaopiled by UbbmbI Excude :^toli,
larhich gives the production of aliBOods in Spain during the 1920-21 season
PPODUCTION OF ALI'IONDS BY PROVINCES.
_^ •; ( Cownercial Esti mates)
Tarragona i ........ !
Baleare s ;
Aimer ia ;
Ivlurcia.. .i. . .-. . a. ..... ,.."...: '
Lerid^ ' ' •
**l^3i^jpt « «•••••«••■•« •*• • • , • • • •
Cadiz '"^ * •
Canarias. '. 2
Ca&tellon ...j. ,.. ..;
Cordoba. . , ". ...,<.-..,,, i ,
Sevilla..; ...: ."..j
Valencia. . . . ^ .:. . ,t
Balda jo's'. ..... .'..', ;
4l, 125, 069
2^, lis, 13s
i 96s, 280
2:, 572, 76s
SPANISH ALMOND EXPQBTS.
The total export of almonds by coiantri'es from Spain during the
years 1917 to 1921, inclusive, according to statistics compiled ftom
both official and cannerclal cources vvas as follo^fs: .- . ' *
- EXPORTS OF ALMONDS FROM SPAIN 1
AlLionds in the
shell: To ^
Other Countries. . . .
.: 2, 089, 121
708,799 : 1,1!
Founds : Pounds : Pounds
: 901, 3o2
: 81, 317
Exp orts of Alnonds from Spain (cont*d.)
— —mill. II Jiiiii—
I ?c.mds : Poiaids : Poxmds
Shelled alirtoads: ^. : •• t
To* * • .
Algeria .- j ... •■ .21,S2b: 30,U6S
A:r...=»r] .iiia : Ui46,S23: 0^3,5^7: 623,207
Unxtad States ; ^,9^336:- I,6l9,l66:i5,73b,750
^^rance : 363,233: 3,i*3S,050: 2,111, 3i4S:
Great Britain : 1,309,859: 70,5SO: 5,952,^31
Holland J 17,527:- ...s
i^aiy ,....: ...: ._. 23,651
Sngllsh Possessions : : . .1 . . . .
in Anerjca : 5,303:
Other Cmtries.. : l,2'*3»7**7s 2,122,357
I ^ • •
U, 412, 606
I.. According to private accounts these export figures are much
belov« the actual shipments, as large, ^^i^ntities are sent
out which are not repotted to. the customs officials*
• . • . , • * . _
gi. No statistics are available on the comparative weight of
JGernel» and shells of Spanish almcnds, hut it is stated tb^t
alaonds generally lose ^3 or 3/^ of their weight in the
. CENERAL NOTES OS ITALIAN AND SPANISH ALMQCT) GBOWERS,
An attezspt Toaa been loade in the preceding sketch to portray con'^
dltlons in the almond growing sections of bdtH Italy and Spain. As already
pointed out costs of production are most difficult to ascertain as no atten-
tion Is given to that phase of the business by any of the farmers. There
is very little trading in land In any of the producing sections for the
ovsners have no Incentive to sell* If they sold they would only have to buy
agprin* . The little Spurns of Italy and Sipaln have a sentimental value that
does not ezlst in the Iblted States. The i^trms pass along f^om father to
son and' each Is coivtent. Education Is very meagre - the best of the farmers
being unable to. do much tao)f than read and write. I^re is very little
I desire to go ahi^ad, and if the farmers djD want to iiigprove their lot
they generally emigrate to the United States and pick -ap what to them
Is easy money. The na^ority seem to be satisfied in just getting along,
ever putting off until tomorrow what could be done today.
This spirit is not qjiite as true of the southern Italian as
pf the Spamlard. The Italians are probably more industriuus, but the
conditions under which they labor are very hard. Their land Is not
usually very productive, as the productive land Is usually found in the
large estates. Education is not generally available in either Italy or
Sicily, There is, however, a spirit of progress being Instilled into
the peasants by the Italian iiepartment of Agriculture that is going to
mean much in the future. The Departments of Agriculture at Bar! and in
Sicily are quite up to daie and are working with the fanners and also
with the trade. In close cooperation with both are very excellent
Chambers of Commerce, TtB leading Italians run you over to the Chamber
of Conmerce (joite in the manner of a Los Angeles booster.
Although the Italian almond growers still have great strides
to nake in development, they are going to improve their almond business
and are going to be much keener in cocDpetitlon in the future. * "Rjelr
business methods are bad and must be improvecL. If they are not improved
tjie business will be taken over by others who have the comnercial hones-
ty and ability which is at present lacking. We must not rely on these
people to stay where they are. TherR is a spirit of progress which,
. . . . . . .:t. .■ .
coming after long periods of political oppression and heavy taxation,
coupled -vlth a total lack of education, will pull them through the
" "l^e Sidilians are Al^'i^arly iixtprov<4Ag tbslt'positton^ aecd <
the dependable' hot^e^''^'^ %racudB/'I4es&i2sayXa tenia and Palermo v/ill
maikB that industry ^f^ ; * -lEhe se ' t>b sectiohsj the Italian and Sicilian^
are of course the close cocipet iters of -the I^ilallorban and the Spanish
gravers^ This competition is- a keen conipetition^ii'dn ^act^ it is so keen
that the nan v.-itli the cheapest almoho' is aole to-Ioeep-hie competitor
almost completely out of the grinding and rougher? almond market. .-- .
As to the 'Spanish' side of this c'ctopetltlon, v/e have the
Mallorcan vho is a good farmer,' q.uiet and iadualti^ieus. • He^ like the
Italian, lives a -wery self-contained life,*, getting most of his needs
from the land he tills. His vtraQats are fevv< and living as be does, in an
eaaiy mild climate, seems really the happiest •aiod most contented peasant
of Europe* Ha/ever, as a coz&petitive factor he is a dangerous item for
the Italian* She Spanish graver feels that he%jsi keep his prices be-
low those of the Itali&n market, 'but if Italian 'prices are too low he
can come in and hold his crop through the winter selling only when he
has need for cash. His distribution is poor - a fe'.v-big houses in Palma,
Majorca, do a good business but a large vdli&me Of the trade is handled
'through Heus and Valencia* -" ■••."u iia:
The almonds on the Spanish Boaihland are' gram by peasants
*.7hose advancement cay be realized by the fkct that they axe still thresh-
ing their 7#heat and rice by the old method of driving 'horses over it on
the threshing floor* Sevelopcaents in eanitation and education seem to
have been just as back;uard. The .vants of the peasants are simple and
fevv and their standards of living 4re' economically low. Their fkwmM
support them and the increase ia their flocks and the- Aruit of their
citrus and almond trees supply their needs for cash. They are, ho-vever,
happy and contented and have no wants that cannot be st^plied trm. their
farms. Italian competition is al.vays an important factor in re^rd to
the rougher classes cf almonds, but as the Italian and Spanish peasants*
living conditions are about the same, the latter are able to take care
of themselves and the market whipsaA's bet-veen them. It is interestii^g
to note in this connection that very little government aid is given by
the Sp?-ni3h Government or the Spanish Department of Agriculture.
In the southern part of Spain the finer almonds have little
competition and more progress is made under the urge of higher prices.
The general crops in this section have shown considerable iniprovement
during 1^e last few years. 'The same la.v levels and atanoards of living,
hovvever, are also found in the southern part of Spain, due probably to
the manana spirit prevailing in that semi-tropical country and the
general satisfaction of the farmer .vith his present condition*
Competing with themselves the Italians and Spaniards put -^
a close and hard fight and the advantage wrings from one side to the
other* Considered from the American agricultural point of view, hcvever,
it is most dangerous and deadly, for American growers with their high
standards of living can never hope to bring their proauct into success-
ful competition with the almoiids grown in Italy and Spain where the
needs of the peasants are so easily satisfied. It is therefore inpoxtant
that American gravers treat the almond graving industry as a luxury
business only, so that by raising only the finer grades and by inteneive
cultivation they may overcome, if possible, the cheap laoor and low
standards of living that prevail in Spain and Italy.
- 48 *
It b&s "bevT- tiiought advisable to iLentiqa at. this time tnat the
trado statistics of Italy and Spain given in this report have heen coro-
pilaafroni ootii govsraiuant and comiiarcial sources. Thib has been done
hecausa of the gener*! «.tti«iide of the trade in Italy and Spain towards
govemiLant statistics. In the first place much of the crop in Italy
go3s overland to the other coijntries of Europe, The records of these
Bhipiaents are carelessly kept and much is lost. Thxis the home consump-
tion of alruonds in Italy can be figured froi*i governiaent. statistics as
50% of the total production. Leading merchants, however, do not con-
sider th,it it aiDoxints to more than 26^ or 30^ •
There arc no accurate figuras of «Jic^ kind kept in Spain. The
only diccurate figures are those of the United States Consulates. Taxes
are assassed both on ths returns of trees, acreage and prodiiction, and
the farmer will not give any accurate figures because he knows that he
will be taxed on the basis of his returns. These factors and others
Ks-lce it iirjpossible to place eny reliance on government statistics alone.
Bie ho;^ consumption of Spain is no larger than the home cansuri.pt ion of
Italy. One can safely say that the gre^Lter p«.rt, in fact alaost the
entire crop, of both co-untries is exported. The people are too poor to
eat the j^laonds. ftosy «r© tins cash cro^ and are sent to foreigp coun-
tries where good prices are realized.
LjkEGE CHOP OP ^OB QUALITY EyT>ECTED IIJ BAHI .
"" • . '
ThB Bari crop this year will be larger than last, in fact, it
is a bornper crop-; estimated at- anpnvhar'ebetiKreen 77,161,000 lbs', and
89,184V00d lbs. The Bari crcyp is now considered to be safe ftom damage
of ar^ sort* -The carry-over from- lest year W£^ on Jtoie -1, between
6,614,000- lbs., and 11,023,000 lbs. which will he disposed of in the
ordinary course of events befoSre the new crop arrives. Although tne
Bari- crop will bfe large, it will not be as hi^ grade as last year. A "
larger- cjuantity of tne smaller grades of rou^ almonds and a much small-
er ^^i^-tity of the bfetier grades are expected.
' The crop of the Syracuse and Catania district will be a good
one. The Aetnas from the Catania district will be heavy and the rou^r
almonds in and about SyracuBe will likewise bo he&vy. Ilhe crop' of
Avolas will be heavy With some scarcity in the better grades. The Palm»-
Girgenti district has also had a- good" season- and the- S^^plies will be
heavy with the probability of an excess of the larger grades and a
me'di'um supply of the better grades. Tne total in this district should
ruft- between 26,455,000 lbs. to 33,069,000 lbs. The Palma- Girgenti'
variety will be i^ to normal. The bitter' almond crop through Sicily will
b& heavy, "'■ . ' ..■ .• •
» t .
. i . ;
SPANISH PROSPECTS EgCOURAGiyG TO GRO-qBRS.
The Island of Iviza will ii^ve fjwm 3,307,000 lbs. to 3,7<r8,000-
lbs. of soft shell ^amonds. The Island of Ikjorca will have a heavy crop,
which is considered past any possibility of loss through weather con-
ditions. There is no carry-over in- this- district. The crop snould nm
imder present cohditions as high as 11>, 023,000 lbs. On about June 1,
the old crop was pretty well out of the way with about enoU^ cm hand to"
•■■■'•■••• ^- . ' ■ • »■ 50'- ■ - • ■ ■•
ran vn%ll the new crop comes on hand. In this district they were al»
ready qiioting the new crop at considerably less than last year's crop.
The Reus and Tarragona districts also show a heavy crop.
fhe total production of those districts will be ft-om 5,512,000 lbs. to
6,614,000 lbs. Ihe same coxiditions as in Italy will exist here, i.e.,
owing to th3 large crop there will be a sijall supply of hi^ class al-
monds and a plentiful s-ugpply of small grinding alnands. The district
from Costel to Valencia will also have an excellent crop. It will run
well over 9,921,000 lbs. This crop will also show a larger percentage
of the rougher grades. The Alicanti district, which is included in
'•• . • - • ' :' . ■ . ■ . ■
this district, shows all indications of a heavy return, and out of
2,646,000 lbs. to 3,307,000 lbs. there will be about 15^ fancy almonds.
The crop in the Madaga district there will range from 8,818,000
lbs. to 9,921,000 lbs., pt which 3.086,000 lbs, to 3,527,000 lbs. will
be Jord&ns £.nd 5,732,000 lbs. to 6,393,000 lbs, will be Valenci^ts. Jor-
' - ' M *
dtns V.TQ cetainly in larger siqpply than last year ^nd they will be Kar-
keted several wewks earlier, Vr-lencias seeiL to be in even larger sv^iply,
proportionr,tely, than ^ordans, and are of excarllent quality. Prices for
this variety will, of course, depend on those of other producing markets,
while the prices for Jordans will be held up, if possible, by the growers
in view of their having sold all of tholr Ust year's crop at high prices.
- LONDON ALMOND PRICE^ .
The following table gives the average prices per 112 lbs. ex
warehouse at which almonds were sold on the London market during 1919,
1920 and 1921:
Tarragona. . .'
Cents zer lb,
C ents per lb .
Cents per lb.
^r-occc ;, (bitter).
iviorccco , (sweet)..
Cents per lb.
Cents per lb .
Cents per lb.
P. G. (Sicily).
Ixlaj orca Fam^ers .......
Cents per lb .
63.2 - 67.2
56. 3 — 61. 2
Note; The average val-os of the siiil
1920 , 18. 32135 cents ; 1921 ,' 19
Cents per lb .
52.3 - 58.9
34.4 - 39,3
Cents per lb.
56.7 - 60.1
34. 'z - 38.7
(9.9 in shell)
ling for 1919 was 22.129 cents;
TRABE STATISTICS FOR THE UNITED KINGLOM .
T?he following statistics taken from the official publication
entitled "Trside and Commerce of the United Kingdom" gives the iiLpgrts and
exports of =lL.onds by that country duiing 1913,1919, 1920 and 1921.
f 52 •
JdMOND IMPORTS OF THE UNITED KIN(a)OM.
— Iffiported' from - r- 1913. ;
. :: Lbs. I
France ...,; : 552,944 :
Portugal ; 1,427,664 t
®P**^-^ : 7,494,480 :
CeJiary Islands , : 536 544 :
£***^ : 2,224i544 :
Turkey, Asiatic ...: 93,856 :
Morocco ..i : 4,191^264 :
Otiier foreign countries. . : i_l ,079 J232 . !
Totel from foreign : •
countries '. , r 17,650,528 :
foto-i froiL Britisn : . ;
Posi>essi',ns :. 22.736 .:
GRAND TOTAL • 17,673.264 :
189 , 728
AIMOND EXPORTS OF tJ^TITED KTJGDOM.
Denes: rk (including
I^ited States of Aiierica.
Other foreicn countries..
.Tot£d for forei^i
tfeion of South iif rica
Coiicida ••••....*...•... ,1
Possessions ' ..
139 , 883
4,443,376 : 1,404,032
- 53 -
TRACE STA TISTICS FOR THE UNITFI3 ST A^IES.
The following figures cocipiled by the lAiited States Department
of Commerce gives the. imports of shelled and unshelled almonds into the
Ifoited States, by countries, for the calendar years 1913, 1918, 1919,
1920 and 1921:
France , .
Greece. . .
Itcir . . .
£^gland. . .
Cc. n t»cLc--« ...
Mexico. . , .
Persic.. . .
Turkey in Asia
Pounds. 1 Poxoads.
4,57-, 391:3, %98, 293
2,c«v- * —
50 : •
— : 10
6,314 '. 3,918
11.03j • I.>>x2
Co-uuatr;les : 1913 :
t Pouadf :
Azores aiu. : :
i/Iadeira Islanas: — :
Prance : 1,137, 903:
Greece : • 2,515:
Italy : 3,9^9,723:
Malta, Gozo, and : :
Cyprua i». ,...: - — :
lethsrlanda : 3,303:
Portugal : 11 , 424!
Spain : 5,624^37^?:
Turkey in Eiarope -; 3G,97b:
England : 51,943:
Scotland : . 36O:
Canada.. ...: 7,301:
Meivico : — :
Ciiba : — s
iorgentina : :
Chile : — :
Colombia : 1
Venezuela : :
China : 5,709:
Greece in Asia. . ,: — :
Hongkong : 11,949:
vapan* •«.•••«.».•• •»— ,
Persia 2 16,6902
Turkey in Asia ..: 117,411:
Canary Islands . . • : — :
Prench Africa . . . . : :
Morocco : — ;
TOTAL :* 13,073,771:
ac,902 : 0,720
351,943 : 273,194
50,046 : 1,766
11,434,914 : 7,949,932
^31,173 i ^73,425
1 9.99 3
333, 13 7
TRABE STATISTICS FOR IBANCE .
The following statistics taken f^om *Da Commerce et de Ij. I^vi^tion"
and from "Tfeibleau General du Comcierce de la Prance," give the imports and ex-
ports of almonds for France during the calender years 1913, 1913 and I919:
-. 55 -V
iS.lPORTS^Qf ALMONDS INTO FKANCE.
Years ending Decec&her 31. 1915. 1913 ana 1919
^■; ^ported irom-
Other CoTon^ries .l.T:,
- - • «i.
lUlAJj ,«•««■•• •■•■• .
• • FciTid '3'
ALMONDS AND HAZELNUTS,
(Shelled - dried)
Italy .,*. .
Algeria. .'. .^ . . . .
Colonies. . .«,
Tunis i . . . .
3i? > 639
i> ■ ■<
(Unshelled .dried) .
' ■ ■ " Pouids * " ;
i 313.738 :
: 1,539,737 :
AUIiaSDS MJSL HAZELNUfS -(CONT'D, f
liiported £tm -
AttUAS ••••.y •*...• «.•
OtbBr c vuntr ie a , . . :
3,073,213 : 23,700,773
EXPOTTS OP ilMONDS IBOM mANCE.
Tears ending fieceml>er 3I, 19x3, 19I8 ai^ I919,
Snorted to -* ;
Great l^ltain :
St. Thomas :
Ship Stores ^
Ejcported to -. :
r ' f
Qreat Britain, ;
S.vitzerland,. .■ :
Algeria. ..-.., ,;
Other colonies-AM :
Indo-China, ... * :
Other countr ie s : _
.. . ^
AlivIONDS iir:D fIAZELi\iUTS.
: 1,102 :
EzE^orted to <^ :
. ■» *
— ■ -,— —t.
Hussia. .l....i^.. ,,:
Nor .-ay .'....-. >j
Austria-Hungary . . . :
Great Britain :
Egypt — . — . .. .:
Other colonies ands
Gezmaoy. .,,.,..... i
British India :
Other comtr ie s . . . : _
AIMQKDS AND HAZELiWTS
(not shelled (dried)
Division of Statistical and Historical Busoarch.
COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES